WP 2.0 (System Management & Optimal Operation) is dedicated to multi-objective system management and to the integration of the results from WP 2.1 and WP 2.2. Concrete tools and innovative management strategies for the optimal multi-purpose management of the Sea of Galilee are to be developed and validated. The goals are three-fold: ensure water supply and food production, even during extreme dry seasons (climate change), rehabilitate the Lower Jordan and generate hydroelectric power.
WP 2.1 (Conjunctive Use of Wastewater and Groundwater) develops a conceptual model for the reuse in the Lower Jordan Valley (LJV) of the treated effluents that were produced in the urban centres of the mountain areas. A focus is given to the conjunctive management of treated wastewater and the brackish groundwater in the Jordan Valley. Conjunctive management will facilitate the expansion of agriculture, control soil salinity, and ensure sustainable use and rehabilitation of the alluvial groundwater resources. Reused wastewater might be used in various ways: directly for irrigation, mixed with the brackish groundwater to reduce the detrimental effects of the latter on soil salinization, or used to artificially replenish aquifers. The supply of treated effluent to contribute to the stabilization of the Dead Sea water level should also be studied. Another aspect that requires attention is the potential generation of hydro-electric power during the transfer of treated effluent by exploiting the head difference of more than 1,000 m between the mountain areas and the valley. Conceptual hydrogeological modelling, satellite images and the key results from field studies in the LJV during the earlier SMART projects are required for large-scale Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR). Planning and management variants for the expansion of irrigated agriculture and sewage transfer to the Jordan Valley will be developed and recommendations for their implementation will be issued.
WP 2.2 (Freshwater Storage in Aquifer Systems) will explore the feasibility of storing desalinated water in aquifer systems in Israel, Palestine and Jordan. The study relies on groundwater modelling and the development of management strategies. The purpose is to counteract the overexploitation of groundwater systems and create water reserves for extended drought periods. Principle and water balance models will simulate spatially and temporally the use of the aquifers, and provide data to study the management of the regional water resources system.